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Terms and Glossary

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P frame

An MPEG-2 compressed video frame containing original information and information derived from previous frames.


Refers to Panasonic P2, a type of camera that shoots on Panasonic's proprietary P2 card.


Phase Alteration Line. An analog video format with 625 lines per frame, used as the standard for most European broadcasters, and other parts of the world outside North America and Japan


To swivel a camera about a fixed axis.


Pan-Scan information is a set of data that is intended to guide professional video equipment in extracting an image to be presented in an aspect ratio that is different from that in which the material was produced or distributed. Independent parameters are provided for pan (horizontal displacement), tilt (vertical displacement), vertical size, horizontal size and output aspect ratio. Pan-Scan information is not intended for use beyond the production and distribution environments. AFD and Bar Data are described in a forthcoming SMPTE standard

Pay-per-view (PPV)

A technique of controlling television access whereby the customer is charged on the basis of what programs he/she watches.


Model number prefix for Sony XDCAM HD & SD products using optical disc technology


Black level or set-up in a composite video signal. (EBU = 300mv NTSC = 375mv) Pedestal is zero in COMPONENT or DIGITAL signals. Also term for a studio camera mount.

Phantom Power

Power fed through microphone cable from mixer, etc. to mike without interfering with the audio signal.

Phase-alternating line (PAL)

The analogueueueue colour video composite system developed in Europe and used by countries around the world. It is similar to the NTSC standard, but it uses a sub-carrier phase alternation technique that makes certain kinds of transmission errors appear to cancel.


Pillarbox describes a frame that the image fails to fill horizontally, requiring bars without picture information at the left and/or right sides of the image. The term "sidebar" and "pillarbar" are sometimes used to pillarbox in a 16:9 display area


The smallest unit of colour in a display. Frames are made up of lines and columns of pixels. The number of pixel lines in each frame expresses video resolution.

Plasma display panel (PDP)

Flat panel display using plasma electronic technology.


Model number prefix for Sony XDCAM EX HD products using solid state recording technology

Post Production

The final phase in video production in which editing and dubbing are carried out.


A picture-scanning process where all the lines of the image are scanned by every vertical scan.


Apple Final Cut Pro's preferred codec. Typically, HD footage will be recorded at or transcoded to ProRes 422 (HQ) (at 176 Mbps VBR)


A lower resolution or lower bitrate copy of the master media used for review or editing. Proxies are sometimes generated in camera, on ingest or at the start of editing for the ease of handling the media.


Model number prefix for Sony professional grade Betacam SP equipment


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