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Terms and Glossary

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B frame

An MPEG-2 compressed video frame derived by extrapolation between previous and future frames.

Back Focus

Adjustment of the taking lens so that the lens shows the same F value as the first relay lens.

Back Projection

Where screen receives the picture from behind.

Backing Track

Pre-recorded audio accompaniment.

Balanced Audio

A method of transmitting audio that resists interference by sending a signal and its electrically inverse signal. Noise pickup along the transmission path is cancelled out as the two signals are differentially combined at the receiving end. This method of transmission is designed for long and/or exposed cable runs


A measure of the capacity of a circuit or channel -- the amount of information transferred between points within a specified time period.

batch capture

Automatic capture ('digitising') of multiple video clips based on timecode.


Magnetic field applied to the recording head separately from the programme signals itself to better align tape type.


A binary representation of 0 or 1. One of the quantized levels of a pixel.

Bit Error Rate (BER)

The average probability of a digital recording system reproducing a bit in error. It is the ratio of the number of characters of a message incorrectly received to the number of characters of the message received

Bit Rate

The speed at which bits are transmitted, usually expressed in bits per second. With video information, in a digitized image for example, is transferred, recorded, and reproduced through the production process at some rate (bits/s) appropriate to the nature and capabilities of the origination, the channel, and the receptor

Bit Resolution

The number of bits (four, eight, ten, etc.) determines the resolution of the signal. Eight bits is the minimum resolution for broadcast television signals.- 4 bits = a resolution of 1 in 16 - 8 bits = a resolution of 1 in 256 - 10 bits = a resolution of 1 in 1024

Bit Stream

A continuous series of bits transmitted on a line


Period during picture while scanning spot returns to top of screen.

Blanking level

That level of a composite video signal that separates the range containing picture information from the range containing synchronizing information

Blue Only

Mode that enables VTR noise to become more visible on a screen.


Acronym for British Naval Connector or Bayonet Nut Connector or Bayonet Neill Concelman - a coaxial cable connector used extensively in professional television systems. These connectors have a characteristic impedance of 75? and are standardized by the IEC 169-8 standardBoom Microphone or lighting support set nominally parallel to the floor usually held by a vertical stand.


Microphone or lighting support set nominally parallel to the floor usually held by a vertical stand.


Term that generally refers to high-bandwith capacity. Broadband has a multi-channel capacity that is greater than or equal to 45 Mbps (US standard) or 34 Mbps (European/international standard).

Burn In

Used to be prevalent in tube cameras where image was retained semi-permanently on the target area of the camera pick-up tube caused by shooting excessively bright objects.


Short period of colour subcarrier added to each line sync period.

Burst Flag

Pulse signals for Horizontal scanning frequency used to extract from the colour subcarrier wave a continuous wave which has an established phase relationship with colour signals for transmission.


High band recorder/player (Broadcast Video U-matic) not compatible with standard PAL u-matic.


Prefix for Sony Betacam SP broadcast grade equipment


A complete set of quantized levels containing all the bits. Bytes consisting of 8 to 10 bits per sample are typical in digital video systems


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