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Terms and Glossary

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I frame

An MPEG-2-compressed video frame containing most of the original information. Used as a reference to build subsequent B and P frames.


The standard for a digital connection or bus used to transfer data between two independent systems. The 1394a standard provides 400-Mbps bandwidth and the reach is limited to 3 or 4 meters. The 1394b standard extends the bandwidth to 800 Mbps and the reach to a whole-house environment.

IF-band (70/140MHz)

A frequency band with two frequencies: 70MHz and 140MHz. Usually used by satellite studios to uplink to a satellite transmission system

Image Enhancer

Electronic device for increasing picture quality.

Image Intensifier

Enables a camera to operate under very low light levels.


A measurement of opposition to electrical current exhibited by a circuit or device, taking into account resistance and AC reactance


With wireless remote control pulses for video recorders are transmitted by an infrared light emitting diode. Infrared radiation is invisible.


Editing where material replaces a section within the existing recording.

Interactive television

A capability in DTV or DSTB that allows a user to control the action of the television and view the results of his/her action on the television.


A system of internal audio communication within a building or corporation over a number of well-defined standards such as RTS-Telex and ClearCom


System of making up a complete TV picture by scanning half of the total number of lines making up the frame in one pass of the electron beam, followed by a scan of the missing interleaving lines to complete the field.


A scanning technique in a video system where odd and even horizontal lines of a video frame are displayed during alternating update cycles. Lines 1, 3, 5, etc., are displayed during the first cycle, creating one field. Lines 2, 4, 6, etc., are displayed on the second cycle, creating the next field. Two fields combine to make one frame.

Internet Protocol (IP)

This defines a method of communication between devices on a network. Each device is assigned an IP address, a numerical label that allows each device to identify each other and know where to send information to in order to communicate/ send files.

Inverse discrete cosine transform (IDCT)

A step in the MPEG decoding process to convert data from temporal back to spatial domain.

IRE units

A linear scale in arbitrary units developed by the Institute of Radio Engineers for measuring, the relative amplitudes of the various components of a television signal. Reference white is assigned a value of 100, blanking a value of 0. One IRE unit corresponds to 7 1/7 mv in CCIR System M/NTSC and to 7.0 mv in all other systems


Device for reducing light intensity, typically in the camera.


International Organization for Standardization. The ISO and its affiliated International Electro-technical Commission (IEC) are the two major global standards-making groups


The United Nations regulatory body governing all forms of communications. ITU-R (previously CCIR) regulates the radio frequency spectrum, while ITU-T (previously CCITT) deals with the telecommunications standards


An international standard for The PAL composite analog television system


An international standard for component digital television from which was derived SMPTE 125M and EBU 3246-E standards. ITUR-601 defines the sampling systems, matrix values and filter characteristics for both Y, B-Y, R-Y and RGB component digital television signals. This document was formerly known as CCIR-601. and may be referred to informally as 601 or Rec 601


The physical parallel and serial interconnect scheme for ITU-R601. ITU-R656 defines the parallel connector pinout as well as the blanking, sync and multiplexing schemes used in both parallel and serial interfaces. It reflects definitions found in EBU Tech 3267 (for 625 line systems) and SMPTE 125M (parallel 525 line systems) and SMPTE 259M (serial 525 line systems). This document was formerly known as CCIR-656


An international standard for high definition component digital television from which was derived SMPTE 274M and SMPTE 296M standards. ITU-R-709 defines the sampling systems, matrix values and filter characteristics for both Y, B-Y, R-Y and RGB high definition component digital television signals. This document may be referred to informally as 709 or Rec 709


The standard for analog PAL (625 line) broadcasting signals. Equivalent to the NTSC (525 line) SMPTE 170M standard


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