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Glossary

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1

1080i Type of high-definition television (HDTV) image that is 1,080 vertical lines by 1,920 horizontal pixels wide, displayed in an interlaced format. (It has a 16:9 aspect ratio, 29.97 Hz frame rate, as defined by the Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) standard.)
1080p/24 A progressively scanned high definition video format with 1920 pixels and 1080 lines and a nominal frame rate of 24 frames per second
1080p/25 A progressively scanned high definition video format with 1920 pixels and 1080 lines and a nominal frame rate of 25 frames per second

2

2K, 4K and 8K Formats of a resolution greater than HD. HD has a horizontal resolution of 1920 pixels whilst 4K has a horizontal resolution of 4096 pixels, for example.

4

480i Type of standard digital television (SDTV) image that is 480 lines by 720 pixels wide, displayed in interlaced format. (It has a 4:3 or 16:9 aspect ratio, 29.97-Hz frame rate, as defined by the ATSC standard.)
480p High-definition television (HDTV) image that is 480 vertical lines by 720 horizontal pixels displayed in progressive format (It has a 4:3 or 16:9 aspect ratio, 59.94 Hz, 29.97 Hz, and 23.98 Hz frame rates, as defined by the ATSC standard.)
4:1:1 A set of sampling frequencies in the ratio 4:1:1, used to digitize the luminance and colour difference components (Y,R-Y,B-Y) of a video signal. Used in PAL DVCPRO recording.
4:2:0 A set of sampling frequencies in the ratio 4:2:0, used to digitise the luminance and colour difference components (Y,R-Y,B-Y) of a video signal. Used in PAL DVCAM recording.
4:2:2 A commonly used term for a component digital video format. The details of the format are specified in the ITU-R601 standard. The numerals 4:2:2 denote the ratio of the sampling frequencies of the luminance channel to the two colour difference channels. For every four luminance samples, there are two samples of each colour difference channel
4:4:4 A commonly used term for a high resolution component digital video format. The numerals 4:4:4 denote the ratio of the sampling frequencies of the luminance channel to the two colour difference channels. For every four luminance samples, there are four samples of each colour difference channel. 4:4:4 sampled signals are also available in a RGB format with equal sampling rates for each of the colour channels. These signals are commonly carried on a pair of coax cables according to the SMPTE 372M standard
4Fsc A commonly used term for a composite digital video format. The details of the format are specified in the ITU-R601 standard. The numerals 4Fsc denote that the sampling frequency is 4 times the colour subcarrier frequency (approximately 14.3 MHz for NTSC and 17.7 MHz for PAL)

7

720p Type of high-definition television (HDTV) image that is 720 vertical lines by 1,280 horizontal pixels wide, displayed in progressive format. (It has a 16:9 aspect ratio, 59.94 Hz, 29.97 Hz, and 23.98 Hz frame rates, as defined by the ATSC standard.)

a

A to D converter (analog-to-digital) A circuit that uses digital sampling to convert an analog signal into a digital representation of that signal
ADR Additional Dialogue Recording. The process of replacing actors' lines by re-recording in a studio.
Advanced Authoring Format (AAF) This is a file type used by Avid Media Composer that contains information about video and audio clips, including metadata and sequence information.
Advanced Television Enhancement Forum (ATVEF) A standard for combining intellectual property (IP) data with television video.
Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) Committee established by the FCC to define new standards for publicly regulated broadcast television in the United States.
AES Audio Engineering Society. AES is a professional organisation that recommends standards for the audio industries
AES / EBU Informal name for a digital audio standard established jointly by the Audio Engineering Society and the European Broadcasting Union organisations. This audio standard is formally known as AES3 but may also be informally called AES/EBU audio or simply AES audio
AES3-1992 A digital audio standard defined in 1992 by the AES/EBU
AES3-2001 A digital audio standard defined and updated in 2001 by the AES/EBU
AFD Active Format Description. AFD is intended to guide DTV receivers and/or intermediate professional video equipment regarding the display of video of one aspect ratio on a display of another aspect ratio
AGC Automatic Gain Control
Aliasing Defects or distortion in a video image, commonly seen as jagged edges on diagonal lines and twinkling or brightening (beating) in picture detail.
Alpha Channel In electronic production and post-production, there is increasing application of 4:4:4:4 encoding ---- which provides full-bandwidth R', G', and B' plus the additional alpha channel to carry processing information. An adaptation from computer graphics, the alpha channel may contain information for linear key, for luminance and/or chroma transparency, for variable edge enhancement, and similar image-processing information
Amplitude Level or intensity of Signal.
Analog Video / Analog Audio A video or audio stream encoded into the voltage amplitudes of an electromagnetic wave
Analogue A type of waveform signal that contains information such as image, voice, and data. analogueueue signals have unpredictable height (amplitude) and width (frequency) and can vary infinitely over a given range.
Anamorphic Denotes a difference in magnification along mutually perpendicular axes. Typically, a scene is compressed laterally during recording and expanded during playback. Allows 'letterbox' or 'widescreen' images to be captured on standard format cameras. The effect can be obtained either optically or electronically.
anti-aliasing Reduction of aliasing effects by software techniques. Typically used to smooth the edges of on-screen text.
Aperature, camera The available maximum dimensions of the optical image on the active surface of the photo-sensor, within which good quality image information is being recorded. The camera aperture determines the maximum usable scene information captured and introduced into the system, and available for subsequent processing and display
Aperature, clean The clean aperture in a video digital system defines an inner picture area (within the production aperture) within which the picture information is subjectively uncontaminated by all edge transient distortions
Aperature, production A production aperture for a studio digital video signal defines an active picture area produced by signal sources such as cameras, telecines, digital video tape recorders, and computer-generated pictures. It is recommended that all of this video information be carefully carefully produced, stored, and properly processed by subsequent digital equipment
Aperature, safe action A safe action aperture indicates the safe action image area within which all significant action must take place, to ensure visibility of the information on the majority of home television receivers
Aperature, safe title A safe title aperture indicates the safe title image area, within which the most important information must be confined, to ensure visibility of the information on the majority of home television receivers
ARC Aspect Ratio Conversion. A process that crops or distorts the image to suit different display formats, eg convert 16:9 footage to 4:3. High end versions use software interpolation to compensate for loss of information.
ARRI Code An in-camera film timecode system, exposed in the camera during filming, carries machine-readable data (a modulated series bars similar to SMPTE LTC for each film frame). ARRI Code specifically contains the production timecode data, hour, minute, second, frame, year, month, day, and camera ID. ARRI Code is readable by Evertz UV series reader heads and model 5550 Universal decoder
Artifact A defect or distortion of the image, introduced along the sequence from origination and image capture to final display
Aspect ratio Ratio between the width and height of the video image. Standard National Television System Committee (NTSC), phase-alternation line (PAL), Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) (standard definition) and digital video broadcasting (DVB) (standard definition) use a 4:3 ratio; ATSC and DVB high-definition formats use a 16:9 format.
Assemble Edit Editing where material is combined to produce
Asynchronous serial interface (ASI) Transmission standard defined by the digital video broadcast (DVB) used to connect video delivery equipment within a cable, satellite, or terrestrial plant.
ATC Ancillary Time Code.
Attenuator Device designed to reduce the strength of an audio or radio signal.
Audio Dub Re-recording the audio track of a video recording
AVC-I 100 HD Codec specified in the DPP file delivery specification for finished programmes. It uses a bit rate of 100 Mbs. It can be recorded by some Panasonic cameras and is supported as a native codec by some NLEs.
Average Picture Level (APL) In video systems, the average level of the picture signal during active scanning time integrated over a frame period; defined as a percentage of the range between blanking and reference white level
AVI Audio Video Interleave. A frequently used file format for storing video (and audio, if required) information in computer.
Avid Whilst a company name, it is often used to refer to Avid Media Composer, the NLE suite they produce (although they offer other post-production tools).
Azimuth Angle between the gap of a tape head and the plane of head to tape movement.

b

B frame An MPEG-2 compressed video frame derived by extrapolation between previous and future frames.
Back Focus Adjustment of the taking lens so that the lens shows the same F value as the first relay lens.
Back Projection Where screen receives the picture from behind.
Backing Track Pre-recorded audio accompaniment.
Balanced Audio A method of transmitting audio that resists interference by sending a signal and its electrically inverse signal. Noise pickup along the transmission path is cancelled out as the two signals are differentially combined at the receiving end. This method of transmission is designed for long and/or exposed cable runs
Bandwidth A measure of the capacity of a circuit or channel -- the amount of information transferred between points within a specified time period.
batch capture Automatic capture ('digitising') of multiple video clips based on timecode.
Bias Magnetic field applied to the recording head separately from the programme signals itself to better align tape type.
Bit A binary representation of 0 or 1. One of the quantized levels of a pixel.
Bit Error Rate (BER) The average probability of a digital recording system reproducing a bit in error. It is the ratio of the number of characters of a message incorrectly received to the number of characters of the message received
Bit Rate The speed at which bits are transmitted, usually expressed in bits per second. With video information, in a digitized image for example, is transferred, recorded, and reproduced through the production process at some rate (bits/s) appropriate to the nature and capabilities of the origination, the channel, and the receptor
Bit Resolution The number of bits (four, eight, ten, etc.) determines the resolution of the signal. Eight bits is the minimum resolution for broadcast television signals.- 4 bits = a resolution of 1 in 16 - 8 bits = a resolution of 1 in 256 - 10 bits = a resolution of 1 in 1024
Bit Stream A continuous series of bits transmitted on a line
Blanking Period during picture while scanning spot returns to top of screen.
Blanking level That level of a composite video signal that separates the range containing picture information from the range containing synchronizing information
Blue Only Mode that enables VTR noise to become more visible on a screen.
BNC Acronym for British Naval Connector or Bayonet Nut Connector or Bayonet Neill Concelman - a coaxial cable connector used extensively in professional television systems. These connectors have a characteristic impedance of 75? and are standardized by the IEC 169-8 standardBoom Microphone or lighting support set nominally parallel to the floor usually held by a vertical stand.
Boom Microphone or lighting support set nominally parallel to the floor usually held by a vertical stand.
Broadband Term that generally refers to high-bandwith capacity. Broadband has a multi-channel capacity that is greater than or equal to 45 Mbps (US standard) or 34 Mbps (European/international standard).
Burn In Used to be prevalent in tube cameras where image was retained semi-permanently on the target area of the camera pick-up tube caused by shooting excessively bright objects.
Burst Short period of colour subcarrier added to each line sync period.
Burst Flag Pulse signals for Horizontal scanning frequency used to extract from the colour subcarrier wave a continuous wave which has an established phase relationship with colour signals for transmission.
BVU High band recorder/player (Broadcast Video U-matic) not compatible with standard PAL u-matic.
BVW Prefix for Sony Betacam SP broadcast grade equipment
Byte A complete set of quantized levels containing all the bits. Bytes consisting of 8 to 10 bits per sample are typical in digital video systems

c

Cable equalisation The process of altering the frequency response of a video amplifier to compensate for high frequency losses in coaxial cable
Capstan Motor The rotating motor driven shaft that governs the linear speed of the tape in video or audio tape transports.
Caption Term for artwork, lettering or diagrams used in video programmes.
Cardioid Microphone with a directional pick-up pattern.
Cassette Recording medium with both take-up and supply spools enclosed in a semi dustproof container
CCD Charge Coupled Device. Light sensitive chip used for optical scanning.
CCIR International Radio Consultative Committee. An international standards committee. (This organization is now known as ITU)
CCU Camera Control Unit. Allows remote control of many camera engineering functions.
CD Compact Disc. Laser read disc digitally encoded for perfect reproduction.
Chroma Key Technique which allows a vision mixer to substitute a saturated colour (blue or yellow) in a picture for another source (captions, slides, film).
Chrominance Part of video signal that conveys colour information.
Cliff Effect (Also referred to as the 'Digital Cliff') This is a phenomenon found in digital video systems that describes the sudden deterioration of picture quality due to excessive bit errors, often caused by excessive cable lengths. The digital signal will be perfect even though one of its signal parameters is approaching or passing the specified limits. At a given moment however, the parameter will reach a point where the data can no longer be interpreted correctly, and the picture will be totally unrecognisable
Closed Caption A system of encoding word characters onto certain lines of a video stream which can be decoded and displayed by a compatible television. Provides program subtitles for the hearing impaired
Cloud The cloud refers to remote services accessible via the internet.
CODEC An acronym of Compression, Decompression. A device or piece of software which takes one file or signal format and translates it to another with an ideally undetectable loss of quality
Coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (COFDM) The modulation scheme selected by the DVB committee for digital terrestrial broadcast television.
Coercivity The magnetising force required to reduce the magnetism of a sample to zero (used when testing tape).
Colour Bars Specific strips of colour used to test image quality.
Colour Black An analog video signal that displays a black screen. This signal is often used as a reference signal for timing purposes
Compact Flash CF Card A low-cost consumer camera card used in higher-end DSLR cameras and the Canon XF305 and C300.
Component Recording of colour signal in separate component parts, e.g. chrominance and luminance, to avoid artefacts caused by composite methods.
Component analogue The non-encoded analog output of a camera, video tape recorder, etc., consisting of the three primary colour signals: red, green, and blue (RGB) that together convey all necessary picture information. In some component video formats these three components have been translated into a luminance signal and two colour difference signals, for example Y, B-Y, R-Y
Component Colour Structure of a video signal wherein the R, G, and B signals are kept separate from one another or wherein luminance and two band-limited color-difference signals are kept separate from one another. The separation may be achieved by separate channels, or by time-division multiplexing, or by a combination of both
Component Digital A digital representation of a component analog signal set, most often Y, B-Y, R-Y. The encoding parameters are specified by CCIR-601. CCIR-656 and SMPTE 125M specify the parallel interface
Composite Signal comprising luminance and chrominance using one of the coding standards, e.g. PAL.
Composite Analogue An encoded video signal such as NTSC or PAL video that includes horizontal and vertical synchronising information
Composite Colour Structure of a video signal wherein the luminance and two band-limited color-difference signals are simultaneously present in the channel. The format may be achieved by frequency-division multiplexing, quadrature modulation, etc
Composite Digital A digitally encoded video signal, such as NTSC or PAL video that includes horizontal and vertical synchronising information
Compression A mathematical method of reducing the amount of digital information needed to re-create a television picture or frame.
Conditional access (CA) A cryptographic technique for controlling which receivers are able to access a particular signal.
Conform Re-link the edit sequence to the high resolution master media after a low resolution edit.
Constant Bitrate CBR As the name suggests, this is where the bitrate remains the same throughout the duration of the clip.
Content protection (CP) Cryptographic and design techniques used to limit how data flows within a receiving device and between devices. This is generally used to restrict copying of copyright-protected material.
Contrast A gain control range between dark and light levels.
Control Track The portion along the video tape which contains the synchronisation information to control playback.
Convergence Accuracy of colour registration.
Cross-talk Interference of one signal with another.

d

D1 A component digital video recording format that uses data conforming to the ITU-R601 standard. Records on 19mm magnetic tape. (Often used incorrectly to refer to component digital video)
D2 A composite digital video recording format that uses data conforming to SMPTE 244M. Records on 19mm magnetic tape. (Often used incorrectly to refer to composite digital video)
D3 A composite digital video recording format that uses data conforming to SMPTE 244M. Records on 1/2" magnetic tape
D5 A component digital video recording format that uses data conforming to the ITU-R601 standard. Records on 1/2" magnetic tape
DARS Digital Audio Reference Signal. A reference signal conforming to the format and electrical specification of the AES3 standard, but often has only the preamble active. This signal is used for synchronization in digital audio studio applications. The recommended practice AES11-1997 gives further information on the use of a DARS reference
DAT Digital audio tape for high quality digital audio.
Datacasting Jargon referring to the propagation of information from one source to another source.
Daylight saving time (DST) Daylight Saving Time (DST) or Summer Time as it is called in many countries, is a way of getting more daylight out of the summer days by advancing the clocks by one hour during the summer. Then, the sun will appear to rise one hour later in the morning when people are usually asleep anyway, at the benefit of one hour longer evenings when awake. The sunset and sunrise are one hour later than during normal time
dB FS Abbreviation for "decibels full scale," a unit of power as measured by a digital device. A digital measurement has a maximum value M depending on the number of bits used. If the actual power measurement is p, the dB FS value displayed is 20 log10(p/M) dB FS. Since p cannot exceed M, this reading is always negative
dB m, dB W Logarithmic units of power used in electronics. These units measure power in decibels above the reference level of 1 milliwatt in the case of dB m and 1 watt in the case of dB W. A power of n watts equals 10 log n dB W; conversely, a power of p dB W equals 10(p/10) watts. The same formulas link dB m to milliwatts. An increase of 10 dB m or 10 dB W represents a 10-fold increase in power. Since 1 watt = 1000 milliwatts, 0 dB W = 30 dB m
dB u A logarithmic unit of power, similar to dB m but computed from voltage measurements. The reference level is 0.775 volts, the voltage which generates a power of 1 milliwatt across a circuit having an impedance of 600?. A voltage of V volts corresponds to a power of 20 log10(V/0.775) dB u
dB- (prefix) A symbol indicating that a measurement is made using a logarithmic scale similar to that of the decibel in that a difference of 10 dB- corresponds to a factor of 10. In each case, the actual measurement is compared to a fixed reference level r and the "decibel" value is defined to be 10 log10(a/r). Many units of this kind have been used and only a few of the more common ones are mentioned in the next entries. In each case the dB symbol is followed by a second symbol identifying the specific measurement. Often the two symbols are not separated (as in "dBA"), but the Audio Engineering Society recommends that a space be used (as in "dB A")
De-embedding The process of extracting an embedded signal from an input stream to generate two separate signals, perhaps with different standards. This term is often used to describe the process of extracting AES audio that has been embedded onto a serial digital video signal
decibel (dB) A customary logarithmic measure most commonly used (in various ways) for measuring sound. The human ear is capable of detecting an enormous range of sound intensities. Furthermore, our perception is not linear. Experiment shows that when humans perceive one sound to be twice as loud as another, in fact the louder sound is about ten times as intense as the fainter one. For this reason, sound is measured on logarithmic scales. Informally, if one sound is 1 bel (10 decibels) "louder" than another, this means the louder sound is 10 times louder than the fainter one. A difference of 20 decibels corresponds to an increase of 10 x 10 or 100 times in intensity. The beginning of the scale, 0 decibels, can be set in different ways, depending on exactly which aspect of sound is being measured. See also dB-
Degausser Device for reducing residual magnetism.
Demodulation A method for extracting digital information stored in a specific pattern on a radio frequency (RF) signal.
Demux An abbreviation for 'de-multiplexing' which is the separation of Multiplexed data streams for dispersal to different devices. This term is often used synonymously with De-embedding when used to describe the process of extracting AES audio that has been embedded onto a serial digital video signal
Digital Information sent as a series of high (1) and low (0) signals separated by a fixed period of time. Signals formed of series of coded pulses (numbers) as distinct from continuous analogue signals.
Digital light projection (DLP) A technique developed by Texas Instruments that creates a video image on a piece of silicon and uses mirrors and light to project the image onto a viewable screen.
Digital satellite service (DSS) MPEG-2-based digital transmission format (e.g., DirectTV).
Digital set-top-box (DSTB) A device that receives and decodes digital video broadcasts for consumer viewing.
Digital Single Lens Reflex Camera Traditionally, these were still only cameras, however since 2007 they have been able to shoot video. They are being used increasingly by small construction companies for a number of reasons; the quality of the lenses and images at low light levels are both high, and when combined with the large sensor and the fact they are cheaper than most traditional broadcast cameras, this makes them a natural choice for many companies. Some broadcasters however do not accept the footage as HD due to the face it is shot at below 50 Mbps. Older models also did not record a timecode and were not able to record synched sound, however later models are also beginning to remedy these issues.
Digital television (DTV) A device that receives, decodes, and displays digital video broadcasts (in both high-definition and standard-definition formats) for consumer viewing.
Digital Video / Digital Audio A video or audio stream encoded into binary digits instead of wavelengths and amplitudes
Digital video broadcast (DVB) MPEG-2-based digital television standard that defines formats for cable, satellite, and terrestrial broadcast.
DIN Deutscher Industrie Nornenausschus, a German standards body.
Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) A step used in the MPEG coding process to convert data from spatial to temporal domain.
Dissolve Vision mixer effect where picture fades out as second picture fades in.
Distribution Amplifier An electronic device which accepts a broadcast signal, amplifies it, and then outputs the same signal many times. Essentially a signal copying device
DNW Model number prefix for Sony Digital Betacam broadcast grade equipment
DNxHD Avid Media Composer's preferred codec. Typically HD footage will be recorded at or transcoded to 185 Mbps.
Downconverter A converter which takes an HDTV signal and rescales it into a standard definition TV signal
Downstream A broadcasting term meaning closer to the point of final transmission. Indicates the system is robust enough to handle "on-air" signals with confidence
Downstream Keyer A caption superimposer on mixer output, i.e. not affected by the vision mixer standard.
Dropframe A method of adjusting the nominal 30 frame per second counting rate of SMPTE 12M-1 time code to the actual counting rate of approximately 29.97 frames per second - a difference of 1 part in 1001. This correction drops 108 frames per hour by skipping frame counts 0 and 1 at the beginning of each minute, except minutes 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50. See also LTC and VITC
Dropout Loss of signal during replay caused by lack of magnetic coating on a portion of videotape, or by particles of dirt or grease.
Dropout Compensator Device which reduces subjective effect of videotape dropout by repeating a previous signal.
Drum Mechanical assembly containing the headwheel in a helical scan VTR.
DSR Model number prefix for Sony DVCAM professional grade equipment
DVB-ASI Digital Video Broadcast-Asynchronous Serial Interface. A standard definition digital video standard with a bit rate of 270Mb/s
DVW Model number prefix for Sony Digital Betacam broadcast grade equipment
DWDM Dense Wave Division Multiplexing. A method for combining multiple fiber optic signals of different wavelengths onto a single strand of cable in a much smaller wavelength spectrum than CWDM. Dense Wave Division Multiplexing allows up to 80 separate channels of data to be carried over a single optical cable using different wavelengths for each channel

e

EAS Emergency Alert System. A broadcast warning system in the United States that either interrupts normal broadcasting, or displays an alert which crawls across the video picture. EAS alerts also contain an audible alert message
EAV Abbreviation for "End of Active Video". A digital synchronization sequence consisting of a sequence of four consecutive code words (a code word of all ones, a code word of all zeros, another code word of all zeros, and a code word including F (field/frame), V (vertical), H (horizontal), P3, P2, P1, and P0 (parity) bits.) which is used to designate the start of the horizontal blanking interval of the digital line. See also SAV
EBU European Broadcasting Union. EBU is an organisation of European broadcasters that among other activities provides technical recommendations for the 625/50 line television systems
EBU TECH 3267-E The EBU recommendation for the parallel interface of 625 line digital video signal. This is a revision of the earlier EBU Tech 3246-E standard, which was in turn derived from ITU-R601
EDH Error Detection and Handling (EDH) is defined in SMPTE RP 165 as a method of determining when bit errors have occurred along the digital video path. According to RP 165, two error detection checkwords are used, one for active picture samples, and the other on a full field of samples. Three sets of flags are used to convey information regarding detected errors, to facilitate identification of faulty equipment or cabling. One set of flags is associated with each checkword, and the third is used to evaluate ancillary data integrity. The checkwords and flags are combined into a special error detection data packet that is included as ancillary data in the serial digital signal
Edit Controller Electronic console which allows the EDITOR to assemble or insert sections of a programme. Special effects and other ancilliary equipment may be controlled by this unit.
Edit Decision List (EDL) A file that describes an edit sequence in terms of a file reference and in/out time-codes. It can be used to share an edit sequence or to transfer edit decisions from offline to online (low-res to high-res). A modern example is the AAF, which can also contain a much richer set of metadata such as effects parameters and caption text.
Editing Assembling a programme by transposing or combining separate recorded sequences either by physically cutting and splicing tape (audio or film) or selective electronic copying.
Editing Equipment Equipment used to compile a finished program from tapes and other sources.
Editor Person responsible for assembling sections of often non-sequentially shot action and sound into a coherent pattern which reflects the vision of the DIRECTOR.
EFP Electronic Field Production similar to ENG but often with multiple cameras.
EIA-608 A Closed Caption standard for SD-SDI television signals
EIA-708 A Closed Caption standard for HD-SDI television signals
Electret Similar to a condenser microphone but with a permanent charge on the foil so avoiding the need for a polarising voltage.
EMBEDDED AUDIO Digital audio is multiplexed onto a serial digital video data stream according to the SMPTE 272M (standard definition) or SMPTE 299M (high definition) standards
Embedding The process of combining one type of signal with another such that both signals can be transmitted using the standard of just one. This term is often used to describe the process of inserting AES audio into a serial digital video signal
Encryption A mathematical technique for scrambling information such that only those with a key piece of information can unscramble the information to recreate the original message.
ENG Electronic News Gathering.
Enhanced television Any of several techniques for providing a viewer with additional information associated with a television program or advertisement.
Ethernet A protocol for connecting computers over a Local Area Network (LAN)

f

F Number Camera iris calibration obtained by dividing the focal length by the effective iris diameter.
Fade Gradual increase or decrease in audio or video signal strength.
FCP Apple's Final Cut Pro NLE Suite.
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) The U.S. government body responsible for setting and enforcing regulations of transmissions over publicly accessible airwaves.
Feedback Where sound or pictures loop back on themselves producing whistles or multiple images.
Fiber Optics A method of encoding digital information into a pulsing laser, allowing much higher transmission bandwidth than copper cable
Field Even or odd line component of a frame in an interlaced TV system (see Frame).
FIT Frame Interline Transfer.
Flagging Vertical break up at top of picture on poor VTR recordings.
Flying Erase Facility for erasing single video tracks from a rotating head instead of a fixed head.
FRAME A single stationary television or film image. In European television 25 frames per second are scanned to give the impression of continuous movement. Each frame may be composed of two interlaced fields in order to provide smoother motion (50i).
Frame Code Absolute address system for each frame, recorded in the vertical blanking period.
Frame Synchronizer A device which retimes an incoming video signal to a set reference such as genlock, bi-level or tri-level sync signals

g

Gain Ratio of amplification of attenuation usually expressed in decibels.
Genlock Means of locking local SPG into incoming or pre-recorded video to provide full synchronisation.
GPI General Purpose Interface. A method for communicating with electronic systems by utilizing relay or electronic contact closure inputs and outputs. This term may also be an acronym for General Purpose Input, which is the contact closure input of a General Purpose Interface
GPO General Purpose Output. The contact closure output of a General Purpose Interface
GPS Global Positioning System. A collection of 24 orbiting satellites operated by the US Department of Defense. Using signals transmitted to and from these satellites, electronic devices can pinpoint their location and the local time and time zone automatically
Graded In monitors. 1 is full broadcast colour balance standard. 2 is general purpose and 3 is a converted domestic receiver.
Graphic Device which allows for the shaping of audio frequency responses in a visual manner.
Graticule A group of lines inserted over a video signal to allow for measurement and alignment of the image. In a film camera the graticule is ground into the glass of the optical viewfinder to allow the cinematographer to properly frame the image
Guard Band Blank region between recorded magnetic tape tracks to eliminate crosstalk.

h

HAD Hole Accumulated Diode.
HANC Horizontal Ancillary Data. Acronym for ancillary data packets carried in the horizontal blanking intervals of a digital television signal. May also refer to the data space located in the horizontal blanking interval where these packets are carried. Ancillary data packets contain metadata associated with the video or audio of a television bitstream.
HD-D5 A Panasonic HDTV component digital video recording format that uses data conforming to the ITU-R709 standard. Records on 1/2" magnetic tape
HDCAM A Sony HDTV component digital video recording format that uses data conforming to the ITU-R709 standard. Records on 1/2" magnetic tape
HDSDI High Definition Serial Digital Interface. A bit-serial digital interface for HDTV component signals operating at data rates of 1.485 Gb/s and 1.485/1.001 Gb/s. The HDSDI interface is standardized in SMPTE 292M and can be carried over coaxial and fiber optic cables
HDW Model number prefix for Sony HDCAM equipment
Head Devices for the recording and retrieval of magnetic information. VTR\'s can employ several kinds of head; rotating video heads an audio head, a control head and an erase head.
Helical Scan This system used in video recorders and DAT recorders wraps the tape around a rotating drum so that the pattern recorded on the tape is a series of long, parallel and diagonally-slanted tracks
High Band Recording in which the luminance FM deviation is from 4.8 to 6.4 Mhz and the colour under frequency is 924 Khz.
High-definition television (HDTV) High-definition video formats that have 16:9 aspect ratio
Horizontal The number of horizontal lines which are used to make up one full frame (two fields) of a video picture. The greater the number of lines the better defined the picture.
Hue Attribute of a visual sensation according to which an area appears to be similar to one of the perceived colors, red, yellow, green, and blue, or to a combination of two of them
HVR Model number prefix for Sony professional grade HDV equipment
Hyper HAD HAD sensor with a layer of micro condensing lenses over each pixel.
Hypertext markup language (HTML) Standard text format used for Internet documents.

i

I frame An MPEG-2-compressed video frame containing most of the original information. Used as a reference to build subsequent B and P frames.
IEEE-1394 The standard for a digital connection or bus used to transfer data between two independent systems. The 1394a standard provides 400-Mbps bandwidth and the reach is limited to 3 or 4 meters. The 1394b standard extends the bandwidth to 800 Mbps and the reach to a whole-house environment.
IF-band (70/140MHz) A frequency band with two frequencies: 70MHz and 140MHz. Usually used by satellite studios to uplink to a satellite transmission system
Image Enhancer Electronic device for increasing picture quality.
Image Intensifier Enables a camera to operate under very low light levels.
Impedance A measurement of opposition to electrical current exhibited by a circuit or device, taking into account resistance and AC reactance
Infrared With wireless remote control pulses for video recorders are transmitted by an infrared light emitting diode. Infrared radiation is invisible.
Insert Editing where material replaces a section within the existing recording.
Interactive television A capability in DTV or DSTB that allows a user to control the action of the television and view the results of his/her action on the television.
Intercom A system of internal audio communication within a building or corporation over a number of well-defined standards such as RTS-Telex and ClearCom
Interlace System of making up a complete TV picture by scanning half of the total number of lines making up the frame in one pass of the electron beam, followed by a scan of the missing interleaving lines to complete the field.
Interlaced A scanning technique in a video system where odd and even horizontal lines of a video frame are displayed during alternating update cycles. Lines 1, 3, 5, etc., are displayed during the first cycle, creating one field. Lines 2, 4, 6, etc., are displayed on the second cycle, creating the next field. Two fields combine to make one frame.
Internet Protocol (IP) This defines a method of communication between devices on a network. Each device is assigned an IP address, a numerical label that allows each device to identify each other and know where to send information to in order to communicate/ send files.
Inverse discrete cosine transform (IDCT) A step in the MPEG decoding process to convert data from temporal back to spatial domain.
IRE units A linear scale in arbitrary units developed by the Institute of Radio Engineers for measuring, the relative amplitudes of the various components of a television signal. Reference white is assigned a value of 100, blanking a value of 0. One IRE unit corresponds to 7 1/7 mv in CCIR System M/NTSC and to 7.0 mv in all other systems
Iris Device for reducing light intensity, typically in the camera.
ISO International Organization for Standardization. The ISO and its affiliated International Electro-technical Commission (IEC) are the two major global standards-making groups
ITU The United Nations regulatory body governing all forms of communications. ITU-R (previously CCIR) regulates the radio frequency spectrum, while ITU-T (previously CCITT) deals with the telecommunications standards
ITU-R BT470 An international standard for The PAL composite analog television system
ITU-R601 An international standard for component digital television from which was derived SMPTE 125M and EBU 3246-E standards. ITUR-601 defines the sampling systems, matrix values and filter characteristics for both Y, B-Y, R-Y and RGB component digital television signals. This document was formerly known as CCIR-601. and may be referred to informally as 601 or Rec 601
ITU-R656 The physical parallel and serial interconnect scheme for ITU-R601. ITU-R656 defines the parallel connector pinout as well as the blanking, sync and multiplexing schemes used in both parallel and serial interfaces. It reflects definitions found in EBU Tech 3267 (for 625 line systems) and SMPTE 125M (parallel 525 line systems) and SMPTE 259M (serial 525 line systems). This document was formerly known as CCIR-656
ITU-R709 An international standard for high definition component digital television from which was derived SMPTE 274M and SMPTE 296M standards. ITU-R-709 defines the sampling systems, matrix values and filter characteristics for both Y, B-Y, R-Y and RGB high definition component digital television signals. This document may be referred to informally as 709 or Rec 709
ITU624-4 The standard for analog PAL (625 line) broadcasting signals. Equivalent to the NTSC (525 line) SMPTE 170M standard

j

Jitter The variation in timing and/or displacement upon transmission or arrival of digital signal. High Jitter can severely degrade the performance of an otherwise ideal system by introducing unwanted noise at the receiver
JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group. An international standards group functioning under ISO and IEC, developing international standards for image compression algorithms for continuous-tone still color pictures
Judder A temporal artifact associated with moving images when the image is sampled at one frame rate and converted to a different frame rate for display. As a result, motion vectors in the display may appear to represent discontinuously varying velocities

k

Keyer A device which inserts data into the video bit stream based upon a supplied key signal. The data can be video/audio overlay, or broadcast data
KeyKode A system of latent edge numbers developed by Eastman Kodak. A similar system known as MR Code is used by Fuji Film. These human readable and machine readable (barcode) numbers are located on the edge of motion picture film stock and are used to number film frames during post production. Tracking these KeyKode numbers accurately is essential for successful post production of film originated material

l

L-band A frequency band ranging from 950MHz-2150MHz and used mainly in satellite signal transmission over fiber. Multiple sub-carriers within this spectrum carry many video channels to satellite recievers where single channels can be selected
Lavalier Microphone suspended from speaker\'s neck. Often used to describe modern miniature \'tie-clip\' microphones.
Leader Uncoated coloured tape used to separate start or finish items. Also refers to film stock used for same purpose.
Lens Optical device for collecting light from a scene and directing it towards the CCD or film.
Letterbox Letterbox describes a video frame that the image fails to fill vertically, requiring bars without picture information at the top and/or the bottom of the image
Linear Tape - Open (LTO) A digital tape often used for archive and back-up o file-based media.
Lip Microphone Commentator's microphone which is rested on the lip in order to provide maximum background noise cancelling.
Logo Inserter A specific type of keyer which inserts static or animated images or "bugs" into a video bit stream overlaying the image
Low Band Recording in which the luminance FM deviation is from 3.8 to 5.4 MHZ and the colour under frequency is 685 KHZ.
LTC Linear Time Code or Longitudinal Time Code. This time and address control signal standardised by SMPTE 12M-1 has been in widespread use in the professional video and audio industries since 1975. It is typically written on a time code or address track of a video recorder and provides an individual frame number for each video frame recorded. LTC is also commonly used to distribute time of day information to wall clocks, automation systems and other devices throughout a television facility. In regions of the world using the NTSC or similar non-integer (1/1.001) frame rates, LTC locked to the video frame rate does not maintain accurate time and must be corrected regularly when it is used convey time of day information. (See also Drop Frame and VITC)
Luminance Monochrome component of colour signal.
Lux Basic metric unit of illumination.

m

M2S A digital video standard similar to DVB-ASI but using a different method to time incoming data packets. This limits the bit rate of M2S to 100Mb/s
Macrovision A copy-protection scheme that inhibits illegal copying of analogueueue television programs. Macrovision Corporation developed and licenses the technology.
Master First generation recording.
Matrix Time Code See AatonCode
Media Asset Management (MAM) A database that allows searching and browsing of video and audio content.
Metadata Technical and contextual data about the audio and video content that is recorded and edited. In the tape world this would have included information written on the tape or notes included in the tape cartridge. In the file-based world it relates to information labelled against the card or file.
Physical Metadata: Card labelling.
Technical Metadata: the facts stored in the file wrapper, e.g. the codec, bitrate and file size.
Descriptive Metadata: Logged information that describes the content of the video/audio.
Microphone A device used to turn sound wave energy into an electronic signal for recording or transmission.
Mini Jack 3.5mm jack plug and socket system.
Mistracking Occurs when the video heads do not scan the recorded tracks correctly, causing visible disturbances on the screen. This can usually be eliminated by adjusting the tracking control.
Modulation A technique for embedding digital information in a radio carrier wave for broadcast.
Modulator Device to convert audio and video signals into high frequency transmission signals.
Monitor Video display screen or audio loudspeaker.
Motion compensation (MC) A step in the MPEG-2 video decompression (decoding) process.
MPEG-2 A digital video and audio compression (encoding) technique defined by the Moving Pictures Expert Group (MPEG).
MSW Model number prefix for Sony IMX equipment
Multicasting Generally, multicasting refers to propagation from one source to only a subset of potential destinations. It also means a technique for simultaneously sending multiple DTV programs on a single channel. The frequency used to carry a single analogueueue television program can be used to carry up to six digital programs.
Mux An abbreviation of 'multiplexing' which is a method of joining of two or more data streams for co-transmission over the same hardware. When used as a noun it describes the device that does the multiplexing. This term is often used synonymously with Embedding when used to describe the process of inserting AES audio into a serial digital video signal

n

NAB National Association of Broadcasters. Used as a term for standards specified by the organisation.
NAB Cartridge A standard endless loop cartridge.
NAB Spool A 26.6cm diameter tape spool with a large central hole.
National Television System Committee (NTSC) The committee that decided on the compatible colour television system for the US. The FCC adopted it in 1953.
Native Format The original format the camera encodes to (also referred to as source format).
NLE (Non-Linear Edit) Such as Avid, Apple Final Cut Pro, Adobe Premiere and Sony Vegas.
NTP The public domain software package called NTP (Network Time Protocol) is an implementation of the TCP/IP network protocol with the same name. NTP is now widely used around the world to achieve high accuracy time synchronization for computers across a network. The protocol supports an accuracy of time down to nanoseconds however; the real accuracy that can be achieved also depends on the operating system and the network performance
NTSC National Television Standards Committee. An analog video format with 525 lines per frame, used as the broadcast standard for United States, Canada, Japan and several other countries

o

Omni-Directional Equally sensitive in all directions.
OSD On Screen Display. A system where important information such as graphs and warnings overwrite a visual display

p

P frame An MPEG-2 compressed video frame containing original information and information derived from previous frames.
P2 Refers to Panasonic P2, a type of camera that shoots on Panasonic's proprietary P2 card.
PAL Phase Alteration Line. An analog video format with 625 lines per frame, used as the standard for most European broadcasters, and other parts of the world outside North America and Japan
Pan To swivel a camera about a fixed axis.
Pan-Scan Pan-Scan information is a set of data that is intended to guide professional video equipment in extracting an image to be presented in an aspect ratio that is different from that in which the material was produced or distributed. Independent parameters are provided for pan (horizontal displacement), tilt (vertical displacement), vertical size, horizontal size and output aspect ratio. Pan-Scan information is not intended for use beyond the production and distribution environments. AFD and Bar Data are described in a forthcoming SMPTE standard
Pay-per-view (PPV) A technique of controlling television access whereby the customer is charged on the basis of what programs he/she watches.
PDW Model number prefix for Sony XDCAM HD & SD products using optical disc technology
Pedestal Black level or set-up in a composite video signal. (EBU = 300mv NTSC = 375mv) Pedestal is zero in COMPONENT or DIGITAL signals. Also term for a studio camera mount.
Phantom Power Power fed through microphone cable from mixer, etc. to mike without interfering with the audio signal.
Phase-alternating line (PAL) The analogueueueue colour video composite system developed in Europe and used by countries around the world. It is similar to the NTSC standard, but it uses a sub-carrier phase alternation technique that makes certain kinds of transmission errors appear to cancel.
Pillarbox Pillarbox describes a frame that the image fails to fill horizontally, requiring bars without picture information at the left and/or right sides of the image. The term "sidebar" and "pillarbar" are sometimes used to pillarbox in a 16:9 display area
Pixel The smallest unit of colour in a display. Frames are made up of lines and columns of pixels. The number of pixel lines in each frame expresses video resolution.
Plasma display panel (PDP) Flat panel display using plasma electronic technology.
PMW Model number prefix for Sony XDCAM EX HD products using solid state recording technology
Post Production The final phase in video production in which editing and dubbing are carried out.
Progressive A picture-scanning process where all the lines of the image are scanned by every vertical scan.
ProRes Apple Final Cut Pro's preferred codec. Typically, HD footage will be recorded at or transcoded to ProRes 422 (HQ) (at 176 Mbps VBR)
Proxy A lower resolution or lower bitrate copy of the master media used for review or editing. Proxies are sometimes generated in camera, on ingest or at the start of editing for the ease of handling the media.
PVW Model number prefix for Sony professional grade Betacam SP equipment

q

Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) A modulation method used by cable DTV that combines changes in phase and amplitude to send four bits with each baud.
Quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) A modulation method used by satellite DTV that transmits information by varying the phase of a sine wave.

r

Radio frequency (RF) Refers to the use of radio carrier waves to transmit a broadcast signal.
Raster Unmodulated TV picture comprising horizontal lines.
RCTC Rewriteable consumer time code, 8mm consumer time code written without reference to audio or video.
Reclocking A method for signal regeneration and jitter reduction involving clock and data recovery
Red, green, blue (RGB) The basic colour signals used to drive a display.
Redundant array of independent disks (RAID) Used to store video programming in video production and delivery environments.
Resolution Ability of the picture to resolve fine detail. The greater the resolution the sharper the picture.
Retentivity Maximum remanent magnetism possible in a magnetic material.
RGB The three primary colour signals: red, green, and blue (RGB) that together convey all necessary picture information. In normal high definition digital video, these three primary components are scaled such that the extreme values are code words 040h (64) and 3ACh (940) in a 10-bit representation. See also FSRGB
Rostrum Camera A fixed camera mounted vertically for shooting complicated graphics or animation.
Router A multi-input, multi-output device that allows for quick switching from one video input to another without recabling
RP 168 The SMPTE Recommended Practice for the definition of the vertical interval switching point for synchronous video switching. This recommended practice also defines a default alignment between standard definition and high definition synchronizing pulse signals
RS 232 Serial communication standard used mainly by computers.
RS 422 Serial communication standard used for broadcast equipment control.
RS-232 A common interface standard for serial data communications equipment
RS-422 A serial data standard which allows one transmitter to send communication data to up to 10 receivers
RS-485 A "party-line" serial data standard with up to 32 transmitters and receivers. Only one line transmitts data at a time while all other lines can receive simultaneously
RU Rack Unit. A standard unit of measurement equivalent to 1.75 inches or 45 mm, used for audio-visual equipment racks

s

S Connector Video connector used for video signals with separate luminance and chrominance (YC) - normally 4 pin as in HI-8 or S-VHS.
S-Video Super-video or Component video. A format in which a video signal is split into a Luminance (brightness) component and a Chrominance (color) component
S/N Signal to noise ratio (normally the greater the better).
SAV Abbreviation for "Start of Active Video". A digital synchronization sequence consisting of a sequence of four consecutive code words (a code word of all ones, a code word of all zeros, another code word of all zeros, and a code word including F (field/frame), V (vertical), H (horizontal), P3, P2, P1, and P0 (parity) bits.) which is used to designate the end of the horizontal blanking interval. The pixel immediately following the SAV is known as pixel 0 and designates the first pixel of the specific line of the digital image. See also EAV
Scanning The way the picture refreshes. The main two types are Progressive or Interlaced.

Progressive: A scanning mode where the whole image refreshes at the same time. At low frame rates such as 25 fps this gives a filmic quality to the recorded pictures.

Interlaced: A scanning mode in which the odd lines of pixels are scanned first followed by the even lines of pixels a fraction of a second later. This creates two fields of pixels giving a perceived doubling of the picture refresh rate, but where each field has half the resolution of the whole frame. For example, at 25 frames per second, the picture is divided into 50 interlaced fields per second giving a more realistic "video" look than progressive scanning.

PsF: Some recording formats use a hybrid of the two scanning types called Progressive Segmented Frame or PsF. Here progressively captured pictures are reprocessed in-camera to be interlaced. A PsF picture has the same filmic quality as a progressive picture although it is actually interlaced.
Scart Connector Or peritel 21 pin euro standard connector used to carry various signal information including audio and video.
Schema A definition of a structure of optional or required fields and allowed values for data entry. OFten used in relation to metadata within files or within a database.
SDI Serial Digital Interface. A bit-serial digital interface for SDTV component signals operating at data rates ranging from 19.4Mb/s up to 540Mb/s. The SDI interface is standardized in SMPTE 259M, SMPTE 310M and can be carried over coaxial and fiber optic cables
Secam Sequential colour with memory, system used in France.
Sequential Switcher Typically a device used in surveillance to provide dis-continuous monitoring of two or more outputs on a single display screen.
Serial data transport interface (SDTI) Transmission standard defined by the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) to transmit compressed digital video using serial digital video interface (SDI) connections.
Serial Digital (SDI) Serial Digital Interface a standardised interface for transmitting digital television signals using a coaxial cable in serial form. Often used informally to refer to the 4:2:2 sampled standard definition serial digital television signals as specified in SMPTE 259M
Serial digital video interface (SDI) Transmission standard defined by SMPTE which is used to connect video production equipment to transfer SD video at 270, 360, or 540 Mbps and HD video at 1.485 Gbps.
Server A computer terminal dedicated to serving stored data to other computers connected to a network. Multiple servers may be connected in areas such as electronic newsrooms and the Internet.
Servo Electronic regulator for a motor providing precise control.
sF Acronym for segmented frame which is a method of transporting progressive HDTV images over an HDSDI interface. The picture is progressively scanned, however it is divided into two segments, containing the odd and even lines. The segments are then sent out the serial digital interface in the same way that the fields of an interlaced video signal are. This format is often used at nominal frame rates of 24, 25 or 30 frames per second
Skew Vertical break up of picture on poor VTR recordings.
Skew Regulator This adjusts tape tension when a tape is changed to avoid skewing distortion at the top of the screen resulting from the video track length altering after the changeover.
Slave A secondary machine (usually VTR) controlled by a primary 'Master' machine.
SMPTE Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers. SMPTE is a professional organisation that recommends standards for the film and television industries. Evertz is a sustaining member of this engineering organization
SMPTE 125M The SMPTE standard for bit parallel digital interface for component video signals. SMPTE 125M defines the parameters required to generate and distribute component video signals on a parallel interface for 525 line video systems
SMPTE 12M-1 The SMPTE standard for the Time and Address Control signal in widespread use in the professional video and audio industries. SMPTE 12M-1 defines the specifications for both Linear Time Code (LTC) and Vertical Interval Time Code (VITC).
SMPTE 12M-2 The SMPTE Recommended Practice for transmitting Time code in the ancillary data space of serial digital television signals
SMPTE 170M The SMPTE standard for the NTSC Composite Analog Television signals
SMPTE 259M The SMPTE standard for the serial digital interface for standard definition 10 bit 4:2:2 component and 4Fsc composite interfaces. (Often referred to as SDI)
SMPTE 272M The SMPTE standard for embedding AES audio into standard definition serial digital interfaces
SMPTE 274M The SMPTE standard for HDTV 1920 x 1080 line scanning and analog and parallel interfaces for multiple frame rates
SMPTE 276M The SMPTE standard for transmission of AES digital audio over coaxial cable
SMPTE 291M The SMPTE standard for Ancillary Data Packet and Space Formatting
SMPTE 292M The SMPTE standard for the 1.485 Gb/s serial digital interface for High Definition television signals. (Often referred to as HD SDI)
SMPTE 293M Television - 720 x 483 Active Line at 59.94-Hz Progressive Scan Production - Digital Representation
SMPTE 296M The SMPTE standard for HDTV 1280 x 720 line progressive images - scanning and analog and parallel interfaces
SMPTE 299M The SMPTE standard for embedding AES audio into high definition serial digital interfaces
SMPTE 305M Television - Serial Data Transport Interface (SDTI)
SMPTE 309M The SMPTE standard for the encoding Date and Time Zone information into SMPTE 12M-1 Time code signals
SMPTE 310M Television - Synchronous Serial Interface for MPEG-2 Digital Transport Streams
SMPTE 349M Television - Transport of Alternate Source Image Formats through SMPTE 292M
SMPTE 372M The SMPTE standard for the dual link 1.485 Gb/s serial digital interface for High Definition television signals
SMPTE 424M The SMPTE standard for the nominal 3Gb/s serial digital interface for High Definition television signals
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol. SNMP is a standard computer network protocol that enables different devices sharing the same network to communicate with each other
Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) Forum that defines standards for television
SPG Synchronising Pulse Generator used to produce master timings for studios.
SRW Model number prefix for Sony HDCAM SR HD mastering equipment
Standard definition television (SDTV) Standard definition video format that has 4:3 aspect ratio.
Standards Converter Used to convert TV pictures from one standard to another, typically NTSC to PAL. The highest specification is that with motion compensation especially ALCHEMIST with Phc. (Phase Correlation)
Still Frame Continuous reproduction of a stationary helical scan video tape.
SxS This is a solid state card format, for example used by the Arri Alexa and the Sony XDCAM EX range of cameras.

t

TBC Time Base Corrector.
Telecine A device that transfers motion picture film to video. This sometimes involves changing the frame rate by inserting a 3:2 pulldown
Terrestrial television Television signals broadcast from local radio towers. Homes with antennas capable of picking up the broadcast signals are able to receive the television program.
Time Base Corrector Short term signal store designed to reduce timing errors and litter in VTRs.
Time Code or Timecode See Linear Time Code and Vertical interval Time Code
Time Lapse Recording of a single frame(s) with a time interval between each recording.
Timecode (LTC) Longitudinal, absolute address for each frame in hours, minutes and seconds recorded on a dedicated track.
Tracking Adjustment for optimum head alignment on recorded track.
Transcode Changing from one codec to another. This is sometimes reqired as the destination (such as an edit suite) may not be compatible with the source codec. You should aim to keep this to a minimum as:

1. There is a small loss of quality each time you transcode; often referred to as a 'generational loss'.
2. It can take a lot of time and computer processing ability to change between codecs.
3. You will require more storage to store both the original codec and he destination codec (in the short term at least, as you may later decide to only keep one).
Transport Stream (TS) Data stream that includes ancillary data, compressed video, and compressed audio.
Tri-level Sync An HDTV synchronization signal
Triax Coaxial type cable with extra screen to provide camera power.
TRS Timing reference signals used in composite digital systems. It is four words long.
TRS-ID Abbreviation for "Timing Reference Signal Identification". A reference signal used to maintain timing in composite digital systems. It is four words long.
TSG Tri-Level Sync Generator (See Tri-Level Sync)
TX Abbreviation for Transmission.

u

Umatic 3/4 inch video cassette format developed by Sony.
Unbalanced Audio A method of transmitting audio over normal video coaxial cabling with 75? impedance
Underscan Reduction on display by approx. 10%.
Universal serial bus (USB) A digital connection between two separate electronic devices which provides "plug-and-play" capability.
Upconverter A converter which takes an SDI signal and recodes it as an HDSDI signal
User bits 32 bits in the time code are user assignable. They typically are used to contain date, reel numbers, scene and take numbers, or other user-oriented data
UVW Model number prefix for Sony low cost industrial grade Betacam SP equipment

v

V-Chip Program rating information encoded onto a broadcast video signal as an XDS packet in a Line 21 closed caption system. Television sets with V-Chip decoders will disallow viewing of programs if the rating is too high
VANC Vertical Ancillary Data. Acronym for ancillary data packets carried in the active part of the lines which are during the vertical blanking interval of a digital television signal. May also refer to the data space located in the vertical blanking interval where these packets are carried. Ancillary data packets contain metadata associated with the video or audio of a television bitstream. See also HANC
VBR (Variable Bitrate) As the name suggests, this is where the bitrate changes throughout the duration of shooting. For example, a Constant Bitrate of 100 Mbps stays the same at every point within the duration, however a Variable Bitrate of 100 Mbps could be more or less at any given point but the standard average would be around 100 Mbps.
Vertical Interval Non visible part of a video picture. The vertical interval carries Synchronisation Pulses, VITC, Telext , Closed Captions (subtitles when de-coded) and Identification Pulses.
Vestigial sideband (VSB) Modulation scheme selected by the US Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) for digital terrestrial broadcast television.
VGA Video Graphics Array. A computer video adapter which can display 16 colours at a resolution of 640x480 or 256 colours at 320x200
VHS Video Home System 1/2 inch cassette system.
Video on demand (VOD) The viewer pays a small fee to the television service provider in order to watch particular movies listed on the on-screen television menu. Similar to pay-per-view.
VITC Vertical Interval Time Code. This time and address control signal standardised by SMPTE 12M-1 is encoded on one or more lines in the vertical interval of standard definition television signals
VITS Vertical interval test signal.
VLPRO Abbreviation for VistaLINK Pro The name for Evertz Monitoring and control software used to control and monitor many of our 7700 series and 500 series modules. May also be referred to a VistaLINK which is a registered Evertz trademark. VistaLINK is Evertz\'s remote monitoring and control capability over an Ethernet network using Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
VTR Video Tape Recorder.

w

White Balance Most desirable condition is when a white subject is reproduced as white on a screen indicating that the red, green and blue are well balanced.
Wipe Effects technique in which one scene appears to push another off screen.
Word Clock An acknowledgement and transmission signal which enables a receiving system to adjust it's timing for incoming digital audio packets
Wow and Flutter Slow or fast changes respectively in the speed of a tape transport which causes a variation in audio pitch.
Wrapper Also referred to as a 'file container'. This is the file strcture around the video/audio codec that contains technical metadata about the file. Vide/audio players/editors will use this information to understand how to play/edit the file (assuming they understand the format, as not all players can play all formats).

x

XDCAM EX A recording format used by a Sony range of cameras such as PMW-350 or the EX3. Content is recorded onto SxS cards. Only the 50 Mbs version is considered as acceptable quality HD by the DPP broadcasters.
XDCAM HD422 A recording format used by a Sony range of cameras such as the PDW-700. Content is recorded onto removable optical disks at 50 Mbs.
XDS eXtended Data Service. XDS involves a system of data packets sent with the broadcast which can deliver: program rating information such as age-appropriateness, the current time, or local weather reports

y

YPrPb A compressed bandwidth RGB signal. The video luminance (Y) is transmitted only once instead of once with each RGB channel, requiring more processing power at the receiving end, but reducing transfer rates by a third
YUV The three constituents of a component video signal: Luminence with two colour difference signals. Y = luminence U = Blue minus luminence V =Red minus luminence

z

Zoom Lens system with movable elements to provide adjustable magnification.
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